The evolution of the MVNO: Why now is the time for brands to take control

When the MVNO model first appeared, it was predicted that a wave of non-telecom B2C brands would seize the opportunity to diversify into mobile. With a few high-profile exceptions, the wave never came. The challenges were significant, not least  dependency on an often-inflexible relationship host network, and the complexity involved in building and managing the systems needed to make the service work.